LIVER CIRRHOSIS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

Susceptibility to organ damage induced by alcohol may be due to inherited variation (polymorphism) in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, or to polymorphisms affecting free radical or lipid metabolism mediated by enzymes such as glutathione 



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INTRAHEPATIC EXPRESSION OF COLLAGEN AND FIBROBLAST ACTIVATION PROTEIN (FAP) IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

DPIV is the best understood proteinase that has the rare capability of
hydrolysing the prolyl bond (Gorrell et al., 2001). We have suggested that DPIV, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) DP8, DP9, dipeptidyl peptidase – like protein 1 (DPL1, previously named DPX) and DPL2 form a distinct subclass of the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family called the DPIV/CD26 gene family (Abbott and Gorrell, 2002).

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Hepatitis B Virus Variants With Core Gene Deletions in the Evolution of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

Background and Aims: genomic variants of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) with core deletions have been identified in patients with chronic active hepatitis B, but the significance of these mutations in the course of chronic HBV infection remins unknown.

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Acute hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes acute hepatitis, but most cases are subclinical and go unnoticed. Acute HCV is symptomatic in approximately 30% of cases.1 The incubation period is usually 6–10 weeks (with a range of 2–21 weeks) and is shortest after a large inoculum such as following the administration of infected factor VIII.2

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Impact of Complete Inhibition of Viral Replication on the Cellular Immune Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Interferon alfa (IFN-a) treatment is effective in only a proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The mechanisms for therapeutic failure remain unknown but high levels of HBV replication are known to inhibit the immunopotentiating effects of IFN-a.

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Induction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type p55 and p75 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

There is evidence that TNF – α contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. The cellular effects of this cytokine are regulated by two specific receptors, and the membranous shedding of these receptors reflects activation of the TNF system.

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Estimating Progression to Cirrhosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

To gain a clearer understanding of the rate of progression to cirrhosis and its determinants in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a systematic review of published epidemiologic studies that incorporated assessment for cirrhosis has been undertaken.

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Effect of Ribavirin on Hepatitis C Viral Kinetics in Patients Treated With Pegylated Interferon

A dynamic equilibrium between viral production and clearance characterizes untreated chronic hepatitis C viral infection. After initiating antiviral treatment, a typical multiphasic decay of viremia can be observed and analyzed using mathematical models.

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Interleukin-12 Induction of Th1 Cytokines Is Important for Viral Clearance in Chronic Hepatitis B

Interleukin-12, a cytokine with an important role against intracellular pathogens, promotes Th1 cell development, cellmediated cytotoxicity, and interferong production. We investigated the immunoregulatory role of IL-12 in 72 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers, 33 of whom were monitored longitudinally during interferon α treatment.

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Infection with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Is Associated with a Poor Response to Interferon-α

TO THE EDITOR: Zylberberg and colleagues (1) and others (2) have reported that patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 respond poorly to interferon-α

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Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection

Summary Hepatitis C virus, a recently identified member of the family Flaviviridae, is an important cause of chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. There are similarities in the nature of the immune response to this pathogen with immunity in other flavivirus and hepatotropic virus infections, such as hepatitis B.

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Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus in Human Liver and Serum Samples by Using LightCycler Reverse Transcriptase PCR

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative agent of non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (2, 11). Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic, and approximately 70% of cases progress to chronic hepatitis.

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Intrahepatic and peripheral blood virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity is associated with a response to combination IFN-a and ribavirin treatment among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection*

SUMMARY. This report describes an association between intrahepatic and peripheral blood cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activity present prior to receiving treatment, and a response to combination interferon-a (IFN-a) and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

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Intrahepatic expression of the hepatic stellate cell marker fibroblast activation protein correlates with the degree of fibrosis in hepatitis C virus infection

Background: Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), recognised by their α smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity, are primarily responsible for liver fibrosis. However the presence of the smooth muscle actin positive HSCs is not always associated with the development of liver fibrosis,

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PEGINTERFERON ALFA-2a PLUS RIBAVIRIN FOR CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Background: Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a alone produces significantly higher sustained virologic responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

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Induction interferon and ribavirin for re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients unresponsive to interferon alone

Background: The optimal treatment for hepatitis C patients unresponsive to interferon is unclear. High dose induction interferon may enhance early viral clearance, whilst ribavirin reduces relapse; in combination, they may improve sustained virological response rates.

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Hepatitis C prevalence among Australian injecting drugs users in the 1970s and profile of virus genotypes in the 1970s and 1990s

To examine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) in the Australian injecting drug community in the 1970s and to compare the profile of HCV genotypes with that seen in the 1990s.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma in Sydney SouthWest: late symptomatic presentation and poor outcome for most

Background: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is a serious complication of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B infection. The aimof the study was to determine the characteristics of patients with HCC presenting within the South West Sydney area, including an analysis of the rates and benefits of hepatocellular surveillance.

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Expression of the chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) by hepatocytesin chronic hepatitis C virus infection correlates with histological severity and lobular inflammation

Abstract: The factors influencing lymphocyte trafficking to the liver lobule during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are currently not well defined. Interferon-y-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a chemokine that recruits activated T lymphocytes, has recently been shown by in situ hybridization to be expressed in the liver during chronic HCV infection

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